Musical Acoustics

Musical Acoustics

Study Cycle: 1

Lectures: 60

Seminars: 0

Tutorials: 0

ECTS credit: 4

Lecturer(s): doc. dr. Kunej Drago

Content

- Oscillations, superposition of oscillations, beat.
Decomposing oscillations. Fourier series, sound spectrum. Noise, damped oscillation and resonance. Waves, wave propagation speed. Reflection and refraction of waves. Standing waves. Doppler shift. Sound field parameters. Amplitude, speed, sound energy, sound flow and sound pressure. Ohm's acoustic law.
- Physiological laws of sound perception. Threshold of hearing. Weber-Fechner law. Intensity, decibels. Loudness, phones. Sound pitch, cents. Threshold frequency. Ultrasound and infrasound. Resolution of human hearing, the issue of notation. Ear and hearing. Anatomy of the ear, Transient phenomenon, nonlinear distortion, timbre research, combination tones, consonance and dissonance.
- Tone systems, interval, Pythagorean scale, diatonic scale, mean-tone scale, equal-tempered scale, absolute pitch.
- Speech and singing. The emergence of sound, singing, vocal ranges and formant areas. Speech.
- Idiophones. Percussion instruments, direct and indirect beating. Beating on wood and metal. Free-free vibrating bar. Scrapers. Fixed-free vibrating bar. Plucked percussions. Rubbed percussions. Membranophones. Vibrating membrane. Direct beating on drums. Large, mid-sized and small drums. Rubbed drums. Mirlitones. Cordophones. Technology of strings. String vibration. String agitation. Plucked string instruments. Bowed string instrument and sound spectrum formation. Striking of strings. Aerophones. Pipe acoustic. Vibration of sound columns, end correction, overblowing, pipe modulation, higher registers, pipe diameter, funnel. Helmholtz resonator. Brass instruments, sound production with mouthpieces, simple horns, fanfare and horn with side openings and valves. Modulation with extensions and lengthening. Sound production by blowing onto a sharp edge. Rim-blown , side-blown and fipple flutes. Sound production with a single reed. Sound production with a double reed. Bagpipes. Sound production with a free reed. Organs. Automatic musical instruments (mechanisms). Mechanism drive. Programming music . Performing mechanism.
- Room acoustics. Reverberation. Origin, correction and measurement of reverberation. The basics of concert halls planning.
- Noise and hearing, audiometry. Noise measuring and its prevention.
- Electro-acoustics. Mechanical-electrical transducers. Microphones and pickups. Speakers and headphones. Sound system in a room. Stereophony. Sound reproduction. Gramophone. Compact disc. Magnetic sound recording. Tape recorders, cassette players and digital sound recording. Sound film. Electronic music. Sound generators. Synthesizers. Computers in music.